The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), responding to these initial concerns and anticipating future criticism of the existing curriculum, developed the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (hereafter referred to as Principles and Standards).

Moreover, the whole group process fostered cognitive mathematical development and autonomous learning, as the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics champion (NCTM, 2000).

In the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000), the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics state that "Effective teachers realize that the decisions they make shape students' mathematical dispositions and can create a rich setting for learning" (NCTM, 2000, p.

A research companion to principles and standards for school mathematics (pp.

The benefits include the following: Students become aware of the importance of standards used in the mathematics framework of the State of California and those published in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000).