t] (1) Where in model (1), the speed of mean reversion parameter [theta] = 0 under the null hypothesis of the presence of a unit root and [theta] > 0 under the alternative hypothesis of a nonlinear but globally stationary data generating process (see, for mathematical details, Kapetanios et al.

If we wish to test the null hypothesis that r is 0, we can use a t test of the ratio of r and its standard error.

If a scientist thinks that an apple dropped from the roof of a building will fall to the ground, their null hypothesis could be: an apple dropped from the roof of a building will not fall to the ground.

Rejection of the null hypothesis of a unit root provides evidence of convergence; i.

2]/E Where O = Observed Frequency E = Expected Frequency R = Number of rows C = Number of columns MCNEMER Test In order to test whether there was any significant difference in self worth among the sample members before and after joining the SHGs, the following null hypothesis was framed.

Their test can detect local alternatives which converge to the null hypothesis at the rate of order [n.

The forecast fails to be unbiased if we reject (i) the null hypotheses that [alpha] = 0 and [beta] = 1 individually and/or jointly, and (ii) the null hypothesis that [alpha]' = 0.

a) If the test statistic is in the region of rejection (RR), reject the null hypothesis and state the conclusion in one or more complete sentences.