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Complex droplet and film formation dynamics were inferred, and the resulting film structure was observed using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction.
X-ray absorption fine structure in ultra-thin films (J.
Recently, x-ray absorption fine structure analysis has shown that only nickel sulfate and nickel oxide species are present in ROFA.
Techniques which have been transformed with the use of synchrotron radiation include: X-ray absorption spectroscopies such as Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) of solids (crystalline or amorphous), liquids and solution, gases, surfaces, and interfaces; Photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy of gases, solids and surfaces; X-ray diffraction (XRD) of solids (powders, single crystals, non-crystalline materials) including small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from polymers, composites, and biological materials.
However, Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) studies indicate that local order is only around 3.
X23A2 serves a large x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS), and x-ray spectroscopy community.
Developed at the University of Washington, FEFF is an automated program for ab initio multiple scattering calculations of X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectra for clusters of atoms.
XAS is usually divided into the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with photoelectron energies above approximately 70 eV, and the x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in the 0 eV to 70 eV range.