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Importantly, the infectivity of agents in such samples is completely inactivated by the solution while maintaining the integrity of the viral nucleic acids for subsequent analyses.
Direct methods generally test for virus particles, virus antigen or viral nucleic acids, while indirect approaches involve culture and isolation.
Tests on a 51-year-old female patient came back H7N9 viral nucleic acid negative, indicating she had recovered.
The 44 chapters describe the role of plant viral proteins in infection, techniques for investigating viral nucleic acid sequence, investigation of protein function, GFP visualization, construction of infectious clones, and interactions with host factors.
The use of CFU calibrators facilitates comparison of different methods' sensitivities because the standardization of bacterial nucleic acid amplification techniques, common for viral nucleic acid amplification techniques, is required to detect bacterial contamination of blood products, as Montag (22) and Saldanha (32) have previously proposed.
It was notable that exposure to viral nucleic acids was fairly common in the control population, with a prevalence of almost 40% for any virus tested.
Some of the targets that might be important include structural elements (such as the highly conserved zinc finger motif of the HIV nucleocapsid or the viral enzymes integrase and RNase H), regulatory and accessory proteins, processes (such as transcription, nuclear import and export of viral nucleic acid, and macromolecular interactions), and host targets (adhesion molecules, transcription factors, apoptosis, and signaling pathways).
The combination of this test, and Bayer's current line of VERSANT(R) HIV and HCV viral nucleic acid tests, delivers on Bayer's strategy to become a leader in NAD assay virology.