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For example, testosterone treatment is reported to reduce serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and to increase levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10; to reduce vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 expression in aortic endothelial cells; to promote vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell proliferation; to induce vasodilatation and to improve vascular reactivity, to reduce serum levels of the pro-thrombotic factors plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 and fibrinogen; to reduce low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C); to improve insulin sensitivity; and to reduce body mass index and visceral fat mass.
A more recent study to test the hypothesis that vascular cell adhesion molecule I predicts severe knee or hip OA showed an increased prevalence of non-insulindependent diabetes among the 60 patients who underwent joint replacement surgery relative to the 852 patients who did not (Arthritis Rheum.
Compared to the saturated fats in the butter, the polyunsaturated fats led to lower levels of markers of inflammation such as interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecules (sVCAM).
Vascular endothelial growth factor expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin through nuclear factor-KB activation in endothelial cells.
Preclinical data indicate that AC3056 is an antioxidant that inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule expression in human vascular cells.
Circulating vascular cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin on dependence on aging.
Higher CoQ10 levels were associated with lower levels of vascular endothelial biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines, although only vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and interleukin-10 remained lower following the adjusted analysis.
The randomized, crossover study examined variations in peak systolic velocity (PSV) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of cavernous arteries, and in the endothelial markers C-reactive protein, endothelin-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), and intracellular adhesion molecule.