A doctor can often predict whether the probability of causation that a plaintiff will be able to establish using statistical evidence is lower or higher than 50%.

Coverage includes basic epidemiologic study designs, basic statistical methods, multivariate models, special-purpose designs, modeling exposure-time-response relationships, longitudinal models, time-series models for acute effects, spatial models, ecologic inference, measurement error and exposure models, multiple risk factors and interactions, mechanistic models, intervention studies, risk assessment, probability of causation and compensation, and further challenges.

Carter, "Legal and Scientific Probability of Causation of Cancer and Other Environmental Disease in Individuals" (1985) 10 J.

He seemed to view Gregg's ongoing existence as evidence that the trial judge's conclusions on the probability of causation were wrong.

A review of probability of causation and its use in a compensation scheme for nuclear industry workers in the United Kingdom.

Under the final rule, HHS also will obtain reviews by the Advisory Board on Radiation and Worker Health, with public input, for the purpose of keeping the implementation of the rules in step with scientific progress on dose reconstruction and probability of causation.

Many sophisticated ways to calculate the probability of causation have been developed for risk assessments.

72) Yet on the other hand, when courts decide whether to impose liability on the doctor, they apply the preponderance-of-the-evidence rule (PER), and if the probability of causation is 50% or less, they award no damages.