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What does P stand for?

P stands for Partition function (mathematics; number theory)

This definition appears very frequently and is found in the following Acronym Finder categories:

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Samples in periodicals archive:

60 QA166 While working with the Theory Group of Microsoft Research in 2003, three interrelated issues were raised to the author: which functions on finite graphs can be represented as partition functions of models from statistical physics, whether the notion of "limit distribution" was applicable to sequences of graphs, and whether results about quasirandom graphs can be generalized to multitype quasirandom graphs.
We will also use divalent vertices, and in this case the two edges have to be both in, or both out, and the corresponding weight is 1: [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] The partition function of a given ice model is then defined as the sum over all its states of the product of the weights of the vertices.