Of particular emphasis is extending these techniques for HVAC&R systems, considering three potential scenarios: (1) a transfer function model of the system is available at the desired operating conditions, (2) a nominal model of the system is available with an assumed level of frequency domain uncertainty, and (3) explicit models of the system are unavailable, but, based on experience and intuition, the control designer has rough expectations regarding the plant behavior in terms of system gain, time constant, and delay.

75 (2) [FIGURE 1 OMITTED] Nominal model from the inputs [f.

op], c), can be calculated in general form based on the representation of the non-linear model as a nominal model with uncertainty and the MPC algorithm as follows.

The best nominal model in the sense that it induces the smallest uncertainty ball is the one with the smallest v-gap.