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Using the Life Orientation Test Revised Questionnaire to measure optimism and cynical hostility, researchers categorized scores into quartiles: high scores of 26 or more were considered optimists; scores of 24-25 were considered mid-high; scores of 22-23 were considered mid-low; and scores below 22 were considered pessimists.
Optimism/pessimism was measured with the Life Orientation Test described by Scheier and Carver,14 which includes eight items to assess optimism, which has been shown to be strongly associated with patient well-being and quality of sex life among breast cancer survivors.
Literature has been published to explain a few measures, such as expectancy-valence theory, the Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Carver, Scheier & Bridges 1994), and the Optimism/pessimism Scale (OPS) (Dember, et al.
Lai (1997) in a search on the dimensionality of the Life Orientation Test (LOT) found a negative correlation between symptom reporting and optimism for both undergraduate and working adults groups.
Instruments Subjects were administered the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS; Rokeach, 1973) and the Life Orientation Test (LOT; Scheier & Carver, 1987).
The Life Orientation Test and the Rokeach Value Survey were administered to 285 university students in Ankara, Turkey.