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In brief, we mixed 50% tissue culture infective doses of Kunjin virus strain MRM61C (100 U/mL) in 2% fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) with 2-fold dilutions of heat-inactivated patient serum (1:10-1:640) in equal volumes and incubated the mixture for 1 h at 37[degrees]C in 5% CO2.
Glycosylation and antigenic variation among Kunjin virus isolates.
Biological significance of glycosylation of the envelope protein of Kunjin virus.
Several WNV strains from Europe and Asia, as well as Kunjin virus isolates, also had T at position 660, but both the prototype WN-NY99 and the IS-98 (AF481864) isolates contain 660 C.
Lineage 1 strains included the highly pathogenic and neuroinvasive NY385-99 strain (2), the attenuated non-neuroinvasive strain TM 171-03 isolated in Mexico in 2003 (19), hamster-passaged attenuated clones of NY-385-99 (clone TYP-9376 and clone 9317B) (18), and a non-neuroinvasive Kunjin virus strain MRM61C (Table 1).
Transmission of WNV in southern Africa and of Kunjin virus in Australia increases in the early months of the year after heavy spring and summer rainfall (2,11).
Vaccination of crows with Kunjin virus, a subtype of WNV, protected against WNV, and a DNA vector, which elicited expression of attenuated Kunjin virus, provided protective immunity against WNV in mice (46).
Isolates from Russia, Romania, France, and Italy formed a distinct cluster, as did 3 Kunjin virus isolates and their close relatives from China and Egypt (Figure).