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2003, The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.
mosquitoes, mutations in the DDT/pyrethroid target site, known as knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles, have been found in conjunction with resistance alleles of the acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace-1R), the target site of organophosphates and carbamates (5).
Knockdown resistance (Kdr) resistance for example, can completely destroy the effectiveness of cheap effective insecticides such as DDT and pyrethroids.
This resistance is mainly associated with reduced target site sensitivity arising from a single point mutation in the sodium channel gene, often referred to as knockdown resistance (kdr) characterised by a leucine-phenylalanine mutation in West Africa (13) and leucine-serine mutation in East Africa (11).
gambiae that carried knockdown resistance (kdr) or insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance ([Ace1.
The pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) has become widespread in Anopheles gambiae in West Africa.