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Moisture is the catalyst, creating corrosion, and the result is the production of iron sulfides and oxides that can cause pipeline spills and component failures.
The particles form as a result of chemical reactions between water, dissolved oxygen in the water and iron sulfide rock.
In some places many of the tiny fossils had been partially or entirely replaced with iron sulfide ('fool's gold') a waste product of heterotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria that is also a highly visible marker.
If reduction regimes become sufficiently intense, sulfate is reduced to sulfide (van Breemen 1976), which then reacts with iron to form iron sulfide minerals.
When you bring this iron sulfide to the surface, what you're doing is exposing these metal sulfides to oxygen and water," Chapin says.
The presence of Mn suppresses the formation of iron sulfide (FeS), which has a lower melting point than MnS [2180F (1193C) for FeS vs.
The hydrogen sulfide naturally combines with the iron in the 35-foot canisters and changes into a solid, iron sulfide.
The deficits of copper, iron, and hydrogen sulfide in the cooler white smoker fluid could best be explained by the precipitation of copper-iron sulfide and iron sulfide (that is, chalcopyrite and pyrite) within the mound.