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Group 1 of these metabotropic glutamate receptors (which modulate the NMDA receptors) are thought be the neurological basis for autism and Fragile X (Chen, 2012).
Furthermore, n-3 fatty acid deprivation during development resulted in marked decreases of synapsins and glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampi of 18-day-old pups with concomitant impairment of long-term potentiation, a cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory.
In collaboration with the House Ear Institute in Los Angeles, the researchers discovered a gene that produces a key protein in the inner ear - the cochlea - called glutamate receptor metabotropic 7 (GRM7).
In an effort to improve therapeutic options for patients with schizophrenia, several agents that affect glutamate receptors are being actively studied in randomized, controlled trials.
The two main glutamate receptors in the brain are NMDA and AMPA receptors, which play critical roles in human learning and memory Both types are made of four subunits and, within each receptor, these subunits are organized in pairs called dimers.
In exposed animals, the glutamate receptor GluAl was decreased in hippocampus, while glia were activated and inflammatory cytokines were induced in cerebral cortex.
While there are different types of receptors at the synapse, abnormally high signalling through one particular class -- the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor -- is implicated in many of the symptoms seen in FXS.
A sampling of topics: neurochemical and developmental aspects of glutamate receptors in the retina, insights from structure-function studies of AMPA receptor agonists and competitive antagonists, NMDA receptor-mediated activation of arachidonic acid and nitric oxide signaling pathways in the spinal processing of pain, AMPA receptor-mediated neuronal death in motor neuron disease, excitotoxicity and white matter damage, and chemoreception of umami in caterpillars.