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Jonmarker et al (3) reported that functional residual capacity consistently increases by about 50% with median sternotomy if the pleurae are intact.
The lung has a basic inherent capacity to maintain lung volume or functional residual capacity.
When an infant is born at or before 28 weeks' gestation, the infant frequently lacks pulmonary surfactant because of pulmonary immaturity, and is unable to establish a functional residual capacity.
In pregnancy, the cephalic shift of the diaphragm caused by the expanding uterus reduces functional residual capacity and increases closing volume, predisposing to airway closure.
Although there are conflicting findings on the effects of PEEP on EVLW in injured lungs, it is commonly accepted that PEEP improves oxygenation mainly by increasing functional residual capacity by recruiting air spaces, decreasing pulmonary shunt and redistributing alveolar fluid to extra-alveolar spaces.