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Samples in periodicals archive:
Theory one is that yawning is a fixed action pattern that may be set off by the stimulus of seeing someone else yawn; theory two, sometimes known as the 'chameleon effect', is that contagious yawning is caused by an unconscious tendency to mimic the mannerisms of a companion; theory three is that it is caused by a feeling of empathy towards the other yawner.
Topics discussed include hard-wired "fixed action pattern" behavior, why behaviors or fixed action patterns can fire at inappropriate times, how such phenomena can interfere even with expert training attempts to control aggression using operant and classical conditioning, which breeds and groups of dogs are more likely to have strong predatory instincts, and much more.
9:45 FIXED ACTION PATTERNS IN THE COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR OF THE SALTICID SPIDER, ZYGOBALL USNER VOSUS (PECKHAM) WITH AN EVALUATION OF CRANE'S HYPOTHESIS OF SIMULTANEOUS "FEAR" AND SEXUAL DRIVES IN THE COURTSHIP OF JUMPING SPIDERS